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What is Automated Market-Making?

Automated Market Making (AMM) is a decentralized trading mechanism that uses mathematical algorithms to set the price of a token.


Automated Market Making (AMM) is a decentralized trading mechanism that uses mathematical algorithms to set the price of a token.

Automated Market Making (AMM) is a type of decentralized trading mechanism commonly used in decentralized finance (DeFi) platforms. Unlike traditional exchanges that use order books to match buyers and sellers, AMMs use mathematical algorithms to set the price of a token.

How Does It Work?

In an AMM, liquidity pools are created for each trading pair. These pools contain reserves of two tokens, and the ratio between them determines the current price. Liquidity providers deposit tokens into these pools and receive LP (Liquidity Provider) tokens as a receipt. When someone wants to trade one token for another, they interact with the liquidity pool, either adding to one side of the pool and removing from the other, thereby changing the price according to the algorithm.


  1. Permissionless: Anyone can trade or provide liquidity, making the market more open.
  2. Low Slippage: AMMs can offer lower slippage, especially for less popular tokens that may not have much liquidity on traditional exchanges.
  3. Constant Liquidity: As long as there are tokens in the liquidity pool, trading can occur at any time, providing constant liquidity.


  1. Impermanent Loss: Liquidity providers may suffer from impermanent loss, a situation where holding tokens in a liquidity pool is less profitable than holding them in a wallet.
  2. Slippage: For large trades, slippage can still be an issue, especially if the liquidity pool is not large enough.

AMMs have become a cornerstone of the DeFi ecosystem, enabling decentralized, non-custodial trading and other financial activities.

Automated Market Making

History of Automated Market Making

The concept of Automated Market Makers (AMMs) has its roots in academic research and financial theory, but its practical application has been most prominent in the decentralized finance (DeFi) sector of the cryptocurrency industry.

Early Concepts

The idea of automating market-making isn't new and has been explored in traditional financial markets. However, these early forms were not fully automated and still required human intervention for adjustments.

Bancor Protocol

One of the earliest implementations of an AMM in the crypto space was the Bancor Protocol, launched in 2017. Bancor introduced the concept of liquidity pools and automated price determination through a constant product formula. However, it was limited in its design and didn't gain as much traction initially.


The real breakthrough came with the launch of Uniswap in November 2018. Uniswap simplified the AMM model and made it more flexible. It allowed for the permissionless creation of liquidity pools for any ERC-20 token pair. Uniswap's success set the stage for the AMM model to become a fundamental component of the DeFi ecosystem.

Evolution and Variants

After Uniswap, several other AMM platforms emerged, each with its unique features and formulas for price determination. Some notable ones include:

  • Curve Finance: Specializes in stablecoin trading with low slippage.
  • Balancer: Allows for liquidity pools with more than two tokens and varying weights.
  • SushiSwap: A fork of Uniswap with added features like staking and yield farming.
  • PancakeSwap: A Binance Smart Chain-based AMM, offering lower fees compared to Ethereum-based AMMs.

Mainstream Adoption

As DeFi gained popularity, AMMs started to attract significant liquidity and user adoption. They have become the backbone of the DeFi sector, enabling decentralized token swaps, yield farming, and more.

Regulatory Attention

With the rise in popularity, AMMs have also started to attract the attention of regulators, given their decentralized and often permissionless nature.

AMMs have come a long way in a short period, and their impact on both the crypto industry and traditional finance is still unfolding.