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What is Play to Earn Gaming?

Play-to-earn (P2E) is a gaming model that allows players to earn real-world value through their in-game activities.

Play to Earn Gaming


Play-to-Earn (P2E) is a gaming model that allows players to earn real-world value, often in the form of cryptocurrency or non-fungible tokens (NFTs), through their in-game activities.

This model is a departure from traditional gaming paradigms, where players typically spend money on in-game items or premium features but don't have the opportunity to earn value that can be exchanged for real-world currency.

Key Components

  • Cryptocurrency Rewards: Players earn cryptocurrency tokens by completing tasks, winning battles, or achieving milestones in the game.
  • NFTs: In-game assets like characters, weapons, and land are often tokenized as NFTs, which can be bought, sold, or traded across game ecosystems and players.
  • Interoperability: Many P2E games are built on blockchain platforms like Ethereum, allowing for the transfer of assets between different games and ecosystems.
  • Ownership: Blockchain technology ensures that players have true ownership of their in-game assets, which can be verified on the blockchain.
  • Community Involvement: Players often have a say in the development of the game, including voting on new features or governance models, thanks to decentralized autonomous organizations (DAOs).
  • Axie Infinity: Players can earn Axie Infinity Shards (AXS) and Smooth Love Potions (SLP) by participating in battles and breeding creatures known as Axies.
  • Decentraland: A virtual reality platform where players can buy, sell, and trade virtual real estate and other assets.
  • The Sandbox: A community-driven platform where players can create, own, and monetize their gaming experiences.
  • CryptoKitties: One of the earliest examples, where players can buy, sell, and breed unique, tokenized cats.


  • Financial Incentives: Players can earn a significant income, making gaming more than just a leisure activity.
  • True Ownership: Players own their in-game assets and can sell or trade them as they wish.
  • Global Market: Blockchain enables a global marketplace where assets can be traded across borders.


  • Regulatory Concerns: The earning potential in P2E games has attracted regulatory scrutiny.
  • Scalability: As these games gain popularity, the underlying blockchain networks need to scale to handle increased transactions.
  • Accessibility: High gas fees and the cost of initial assets can be a barrier to entry for new players.

The History of Play-to-Earn Gaming

The Early Days: Virtual Goods and In-Game Economies (Pre-2010s)

  • Before the advent of blockchain, virtual goods and in-game economies existed but were largely controlled by game developers. Players could buy items but rarely had the opportunity to sell them for real-world value.

The Emergence of Blockchain (Early 2010s)

  • The introduction of blockchain technology provided the foundation for true ownership of digital assets. However, the concept of Play-to-Earn gaming was not immediately realized.

CryptoKitties: The Pioneer (2017)

  • Launched in November 2017, CryptoKitties was one of the first games to introduce the concept of true ownership of in-game assets via non-fungible tokens (NFTs). Although not a full-fledged Play-to-Earn game, it opened the door for the monetization of in-game assets.

The Birth of Play-to-Earn (2018-2019)

  • Games like Gods Unchained and My Crypto Heroes introduced more comprehensive Play-to-Earn elements, allowing players to earn, trade, and own in-game assets as NFTs.

Mainstream Adoption: Axie Infinity (2020)

  • Axie Infinity took the Play-to-Earn model to new heights. Launched in 2018 but gaining significant traction in 2020, the game allowed players to earn tokens (SLP and AXS) that could be traded for real-world value. It became a full-time income source for players in some countries.

The DeFi Boom and NFT Craze (2020-2021)

  • The rise of Decentralized Finance (DeFi) and the mainstream adoption of NFTs further fueled the Play-to-Earn model. Games like Decentraland and The Sandbox allowed players to trade land and other assets as NFTs, while also integrating DeFi elements.

The Rise of DAOs and Community Governance (2021-Present)

Regulatory Attention (2021-Present)

  • As Play-to-Earn gaming started becoming a significant source of income for many, it began attracting regulatory scrutiny. Countries are now looking into how to classify and tax earnings from such games.

The Future: Scalability and Interoperability (2022 and Beyond)

  • With the advent of Layer 2 solutions and cross-chain interoperability, the Play-to-Earn model is expected to become more scalable and accessible, opening the doors for mass adoption.

Future Outlook

The Play-to-Earn model is still in its nascent stage but is rapidly gaining traction. As blockchain technology evolves and becomes more scalable and accessible, the P2E gaming industry is expected to grow exponentially, offering more opportunities for players to earn while they play.

The history of Play-to-Earn gaming is a testament to the rapid evolution of digital ownership and the blending of gaming with financial incentives. It's a sector that continues to evolve, offering new opportunities and challenges alike.