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These digital currencies, which serve as the electronic equivalent of physical cash, have the potential to reshape economies, streamline transactions, and redefine monetary policy.
As of 2023, almost all nations in the world have begun to explore, test, and even implement their own CBDCs.
This map, as of May 2023, maintained by CBDCTracker shows the global development of CBDCs and their status for each respective country.
This article provides a snapshot of the current state of CBDC initiatives around the world.
China: A Pioneer in CBDC Development
China has led the CBDC race, launching its digital currency, the Digital Currency Electronic Payment (DCEP), after years of development.
The DCEP is designed to operate on a two-tier system, with the People's Bank of China issuing the currency to commercial banks, which subsequently distribute it to the public. This model ensures the central bank's control over the currency while maintaining the existing monetary distribution network.
European Union: Exploring Digital Euro
The European Central Bank (ECB) is in the exploratory phase of a digital Euro. After a comprehensive analysis of potential implications and a series of public consultations, the ECB aims to decide by mid-2024 whether to launch a digital Euro project.
A digital Euro, if launched, would complement cash, not replace it, and would ensure that all citizens in the euro area can access a secure form of digital central bank money.
United States: A Cautious Approach
The United States, while still deliberating on the development of a digital dollar, has taken a more cautious approach.
The Federal Reserve, in collaboration with MIT, initiated 'Project Hamilton' to study the feasibility and implications of a CBDC. While no concrete plans for a CBDC launch have been disclosed, the United States is keen on understanding the potential benefits and pitfalls of digital currencies, with a particular focus on maintaining financial stability and preventing illicit activities.
Caribbean Region: Leading Small Economies
The Eastern Caribbean Central Bank (ECCB) made history in 2021 by launching 'DCash', the world's first CBDC to go live in a currency union.
The 'DCash' is an officially issued digital currency for use by consumers and businesses, aiming to foster financial inclusion, competitiveness, and economic growth within the eight-member ECCB currency union.
Sweden: Venturing into Digital Krona
Sweden, one of the world's least cash-dependent societies, is exploring the e-Krona project.
Riksbank, the central bank of Sweden, is conducting a pilot project with Accenture to develop a technical solution for an e-Krona that can work as a complement to cash. Given the declining use of cash in the country, the e-Krona is seen as a potential solution to secure public access to central bank money.
Recently, the International Monetary Fund (IMF) has recently unveiled their new digital currency, called the Universal Monetary Unit (UMU).
What are the Dangers of CBDCs?
As governments around the world push to develop central bank digital currencies, there has been a growing fear among many about the dangers this new type of currency poses, including limited use, expiry dates, taxation per transaction, capping of cash balances, and overreaching monitoring of our financial transactions.
The development of CBDCs represents a significant step in the evolution of money. As these digital currencies move from the realm of theoretical exploration to practical implementation, they present a host of opportunities, challenges, and questions for policymakers, financial institutions, and citizens alike.
It is crucial to navigate these with care, balancing the potential benefits as well as the dangers of CBDCs with the need for security, privacy, and financial stability.
As we watch these CBDC initiatives unfold worldwide, we stand on the brink of a potential revolution in the global monetary system.
CBDCs are just one component of a much larger system, which include the standardization of global financial transactions (ISO 20022), all part of a much larger system many are calling the New Financial System (QFS).